Harvard System -
2-page Quick Guide


1.1         If the author’s name occurs naturally in the sentence the year is given in  parentheses:-    e.g. In a popular study, Harvey (1992, p.556) argued that ...

1.2         If, however, the name does not occur naturally in the sentence, both name and year  are given in parentheses:-

e.g. More recent studies (Bartlett,1996; James,1998) show that ...

1.3         When an author has published more than one cited document in the same year

   these are distinguished by  adding  lower case letters (a,b,c, etc.) after the year and within the parentheses:- e.g. Johnson (1994a) discussed the subject ...

1.4         If there are two authors, the surnames of both should be given:-
e.g. Matthews and Jones (1993) have proposed that...

1.5         If there are more than two authors the surname of the first author only should be  given,  followed by et al :-
e.g. Wilson  et al. (1997) conclude that...

1.6         If there is no originator then “Anon” should be used:-
 e.g.  A recent article  (Anon,1993) stated that...

However, if it is a reference to newspapers where no author is given the name of  the

paper can be used in place of  author or Anon whichever seems most helpful.   You will need to use the same style in the reference list so the name of the newspaper may be more helpful.

e.g. The Times (1996) stated that....

1.7      If you refer to a source quoted in another work you cite both in the text:-

e.g.  A study by Smith (1960, cited in Jones 1994 p.24) showed that...

(You need to list the work you have used, i.e. Jones, in the main bibliography.)


1.8   Quotations:-
A short quotation of less than a line may be included in the body of the text in  quotation marks but if it is longer start a new line and indent it. Include the page number if desired.


Single space the quotation (assuming your normal spacing is 1.5)

e.g.:  .... so “good practices must be taught”  (Smith,1996, p.15) and we  should...

or:         Theory rises out of practice, and once validated, returns to direct  or explain the  practice. (Stevens,1997, p.92)

·      Your references  should be in alphabetic order of author(s) at the end of your assignment.


·      There should be a 1:1 correspondence between the works cited and the list of references  i.e.

If it is cited in the text, then it must be included in the references  at the end of your assignment

If you have included an item in your list of references then it must have been cited in the text (i.e. do not include books you may have read but have not cited in the text)

Your list of references should therefore only contain what you yourself have read.


Adapted by:


Mike Hart

Business Management Group

King Alfred’s College, Winchester





Example of List of References


Anderson. N.H. (1972) ‘Scales and Statistics: Parametric and non-parametric’ in R. E. Kirk (ed)., Statistical Issues: A Reader for the Behavioural Sciences, Brooks/Cole, Monterrey.


Avis,M., Bond,M. and Arthur,A. (1995), ‘Satisfying solution?  A review of some unresolved issues in the measurement of patient satisfaction’, Journal of Advanced Nursing,22: 316-322.


Baker,R. and Whitfield,M. (1992) 'Measuring patient satisfaction: a test of construct validity', Quality in Health Care, 1(2):104-109.


Bamford,C. and Jacoby,A. (1992) 'Development of patient satisfaction questionnaires: I. Methodological issues', Quality in Health Care, 1(3): 153-157.


Batalden,P. and Nelson,E. (1990) ‘Hospital Quality: Patient, Physician and Employee Judgements’, International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 3(4): 7-17.


Batchelor,C., Owens,D.J., Read,M. and Bloor,M. (1994) 'Patient Satisfaction Studies: Methodology,Management and Consumer Evaluation', International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 7(7): 22-30.


Blalock, H. M. (1979) Social Statistics [Revised 2nd edition],McGraw-Hill Kogakusha, London.


Carr-Hill, R. (1992), ‘The measurement of patient satisfaction’, Journal of Public Health Medicine, 14(3): 236-249.


Carr-Hill,R., Humphries,K. and McIver,S (1987) Wolverhampton: a picture of health, York, Centre for Health Economics.(mimeograph)


College of Health (1994) Consumer Audit Guidelines, College of Health.,London


Dalrymple,J.F., Donnelly, M., Wisniewski,M and Curry,A.C. (1995), ‘Measuring service quality in local government’ in G.K. Kanji (ed), Total Quality Management, Chapman and Hall, London.


DHSS(1983), Enquiry into NHS Management, (The Griffiths Report), HMSO, London.


Eccles,M., Jacoby,A. and Bamford,C. (1992) 'Development of patient satisfaction questionnaires: II. Collaboration in practice', Quality in Health Care, 1(3): 158-160.


Ellis,R. and Whittington,D. (1994), 'Health Care Quality Assurance: Techniques and Approaches', Public Money and Management, 14(2):23-29.


Evason,E. and Whittington,D. (1991) 'Patient Satisfaction Studies:Problems and Implications Explored in a Pilot Study in Northern Ireland', Health Education Journal, 50(2): 73-77.


Fitzpatrick,R. (1991a) 'Surveys of Patient satisfaction:I-Important general considerations', British Medical Journal, 302: 887-889.


Fitzpatrick,R. (1991b) 'Surveys of Patient satisfaction:II-Designing a Questionnaire and Conducting a Survey', British Medical Journal, 302: 1129-1132.


Hand, D.J. (1996) ‘Statistics and the theory of measurement’, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 159(3), pp. 445-492.


Kind,P., Leese,B., Cameron, I. and Carpenter,J. (1993),’Quantifying Quality - Measuring Quality in the Provision of Health Care’ in, M. Malek, P.Vacani,  J.Rasquinha and  P. Davey (eds). Managerial Issues in the Reformed NHS, John Wiley  & Sons, Chichester.

Linder-Pelz,S. (1982) 'Toward a theory of patient satisfaction', Social Science and Medicine, 16: 577.


Locker,D. and Dunt,D. (1978) 'Theoretical and methodological issues in sociological studies of consumer satisfaction with medical care', Social Science and Medicine, 12: 283-292.


Lodge,M. (1981) Magnitude Scaling [Sage University Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences No. 25], Beverly Hills, Sage


Lord, F,M. (1972) ‘On the statistical treatment of football numbers’ in  R.E. Kirk (ed)., Statistical Issues: A Reader for the Behavioural Sciences, Brooks/Cole, Monterrey.


NHS Management Executive (1992), Local Voices - The Views of Local People in Purchasing for Health, EL(92)1, January


Parasuraman,A., Zeithaml,V. and Berry,L. (1985)  'A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and its implications for Future Research',  Journal of Marketing, 49 (Fall): 41-50.


Parasuraman,A., Zeithaml,V. and Berry,L. (1988)  'SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Perceptions of Service Quality', Journal of Retailing, 64: 12-40.


Rigge,M. (1995)  'Does public opinion matter ? (Yes/No/Don't know'), Health Service Journal, 7 September: 26-27.


Scott,A. and Smith,R. (1994), ‘Keeping the Customer Satisfied: Issues in the Interpretation and Use of Patient Satisfaction Surveys’, International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 6(4),: 353-359.


Siegel, S. and Castellan.N.J. (1988) Nonparametric Statistics [2nd edition], McGraw-Hill, New York.


Stevens,S.S. ‘On the theory of scales of measurement’, Science, 103, 677-680.


Zeithaml,V., Parasuraman,A. and Berry,L. (1990) Delivering Service Quality, Free Press, New York.